# Mathematics

Students learn to reflect on, self-assess, and revise homework. They also take further ownership of their learning and develop study skills through the completion of homework practice that relates to and extends their in-class explorations.

Beyond a foundational 6th grade course, Middle School math courses are subject-based (not grade-level based). The four courses taught in Middle School are 6th Grade Math, Pre-Algebra, Algebra 1, and Geometry.

By the end of eighth grade, students can apply the concepts they’ve learned to problem solving and projects. Students can use the language of mathematics in reading, writing, and discussion to further develop their understanding. They can reach beyond memorized rules or strategies to fully comprehend mathematical reasoning.

## 6th

Most students in this grade take the 6th Grade Math course, which is designed to integrate a prior foundation of number sense and basic operations with more complex calculations and problem-solving.

Sixth Grade Math includes these concepts:

• Introductory statistics and probability
• Understanding of and operations with integers
• Order of operations including exponents and integers
• Integration and application of fractions, decimals, and percent
• Understanding of ratios and proportional reasoning
• The use of basic algebraic expressions and equations
• Factoring

## 7th

Beyond 6th Grade Math, Middle School students in 7th and 8th grades take Pre-Algebra, Algebra 1, and Geometry.

Pre-Algebra incorporates all strands of mathematics and serves as a critical link in the transition from arithmetic to algebra. Advanced arithmetic concepts are reviewed and used extensively, and the primary foundations to all algebraic concepts are introduced and practiced. Algebra 1 is also a foundational course designed to give all students a solid basis in algebraic reasoning.

Skills and understandings students gain in these courses include:

• A deep conceptual understanding of numerical and variable relationships
• Analytical and abstract reasoning
• Skill in symbolic representation, generalization, and computation
• Ability to apply foundational elements in the context of real-world problem-solving
• Understanding of the recognition, generalization, and symbolic description of patterns using variables, expressions, and equations

## 8th

Students continue their math studies with the Pre-Algebra, Algebra 1, and Geometry courses. In all courses, application of concepts is emphasized by way of in-class discussions, problem solving, and projects.

In Geometry, students relate concepts from algebra to geometric phenomena. The course emphasizes the study of the properties and applications of common geometric figures in two and three dimensions. Topics covered include angles, lines, triangles, polygons, circles, congruency, similar figures, area, volume, trigonometric ratios, logic and constructions.

Skills and understandings students gain in this course include:

• The ability to use algebraic concepts explore to geometry, statistics and probability, and proportional reasoning
• An understanding of deductive reasoning in mathematics
• Experience in using theorems to solve problems and create formal proofs
• The ability to work in two-column proofs